The breeding of rose varieties began centuries ago and continues to this day. Rose breeders worldwide have created countless varieties. It is impossible to provide an exact description of each one, so they are generally categorized according to groups. Before purchasing a rose bush for your garden, it is advisable to consider what is suitable for the specific location. Choosing from the almost bewildering array of options is not easy.
In addition to the external appearance, it is also crucial to consider their resistance to diseases. If we plant a remarkably beautiful variety that is highly susceptible to powdery mildew, for example, even careful care may not protect it from persistent fungal attacks. Of course, even the hardiest variety can only shine in its full glory if we provide the appropriate environment for it.
Classification of Rose Varieties
- Bedding Roses
Compact varieties ranging from 60-150 cm in height, including polyanthas, polyantha hybrids, floribundas, and grandifloras. Their striking difference compared to other varieties is that they don’t produce just one flower per stem, but rather the flowers bloom in clusters. These plants are particularly suitable for parks and gardens and are fundamental elements in landscaping. Their color and shape resemble those of tea hybrids, with the only distinction being the clustered appearance. The renowned Hungarian rose breeder Gergely Márk also developed around 400 varieties of bedding roses, which became known as “Márk Roses.”
- Tea Hybrids
Tea Hybrid plants with straight stems measuring 50-100 cm in length. Tea hybrid rose varieties are the main types used for cut flowers. Their main characteristic is the long, straight stems with minimal branching, usually ending in one large fragrant flower, occasionally two or more. They can bloom from early summer to the onset of frost, even lasting until November. This type offers the widest range of colors, including bi-colored roses.
- Shrub Roses
Shrub roses can grow up to 3-4 meters tall, with a similar spread. Due to their size, they should be planted at least 1.5 meters apart. There are both once-flowering and repeat-flowering varieties. The latter are best suited for spacious areas, while the former are less fashionable nowadays. In winter, their hips serve as food for birds.
- Climbing Roses
Climbing roses, also known as rambling roses, these varieties produce long canes that can be trained to grow on fences or pergolas. However, they cannot attach themselves naturally, so the canes need to be secured. There are various types available in the market, including those that bloom once or twice a year. Some varieties can grow very rapidly and reach heights of 4-6 meters. This should be taken into consideration when determining their placement.
- Dwarf Roses
Dwarf roses, also known as mini roses. They grow up to a maximum height of 30-40 centimeters and are ideal for balconies, patios, and even for keeping in flower boxes. They can be planted in rock gardens or used as edging plants. With their continuous blooming throughout the summer, they look great everywhere. They are often available in flower shops, and they are a common choice for gifts.
- Groundcover Roses
Groundcover rose varieties belong to the category of low-growing roses, ranging from 20 to 60 centimeters in height. They easily spread along the ground. They are popular as groundcovers under shrubs and trees, but they also thrive in flower beds. Additionally, they are excellent for planting and decorating various garden containers or ornamental figures. These colorful, small-clustered roses bloom abundantly from summer until the first autumn frost.
- Standard Roses
Standard roses cannot be considered a separate variety, as they refer to a tall, 40-90 centimeter stem onto which a grafted noble, bedding, or shrub rose is budded. There are also weeping variations, which are grafted onto taller stems around 140 cm high. Their advantage is that there is no need to bend down for pruning or to admire them. Another benefit is that they can add multi-level interest to a rose bed.
Since the 1980s, there has been a renewed interest in old, nostalgic, and fragrant varieties among both buyers and breeders. In addition to David Austin’s English roses, French breeder Alain Meilland also introduced his series of “Provence-scented roses.”
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